The fourth City Street Conference builds on the themes presented in the previous three conferences, and proposes new themes in the form of roundtable sessions, which are pertinent to current issues globally. This range of topics encourages submissions from various disciplines. The tracks are:
: Integrated and Universal Mobility: Whose streets?
: Dense, Diverse and Designed Urban Development
: Mitigating Traffic Congestion with Urban Development
: Travel time and Efficiency of Transport Systems
: Public-Transport-oriented Cities for All
: Borders in Street Life: Dividing or Protecting?
: Green Mobility in a Way to Climate Resilient Streets
: Safety and Mobility in Local Communities
: Indicators and Data for Local Progress in Sustainable Mobility
: Pedestrian Friendly Cities to Support Climate Change
: Mobility Narratives and Shifting Identities
: Street lighting – Supporting sustainable urban development
: Sustainable Tourist Mobility: New Implications for Non-Motorized Trips
: Perspectives on Sustainable Mobility: Culture of Everyday Activism
T1: Integrated and Universal Mobility: Whose streets?
Track Chair: Prof. Paola Somma, Freelancer, Venice, Italy
Around the world “the street” is the object of design competitions, academic courses, and concrete transformative operations. Most of these exercises propose scenarios that focus on the needs and requests of specific categories and groups of citizens and intentionally select the public for which the streets are intended. As a result, integration and universality become synonymous of all modes of transportation or, in the best case, of all ages and abilities.
The track focuses on how the dominant narrative is translated into concrete action and addresses a series of questions: Who can use the street? For what purpose? Under what conditions? With what entitlement and responsibility? In other words, whom the street belongs? Are the owners the ones who own the properties that front it? The ones who use the ground floor for a variety of economic activities? The city council that regulates its modes of use and design standards? The citizens in general? The international investors?
These questions are relevant both from a theoretical point of view and for their arising operative implications as they prompt us to turn the attention from unpopulated blueprints to the actual spatial practices that are changing our cities. All disciplinary approaches are welcome to the track, provided they highlight the contradiction between the catchy slogans that advertise “streets for all” and the extreme categorization of the citizens that are addressed to, and engage with, proposing alternative and less unequal modes of using the public space.
: The Street, Users, Public spaces, Whom the street belongs, “Streets for all”
T2: Dense, Diverse and Designed Urban Development
Track Chair: Dr. Branislav Folić, University of Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia
The physical component of a developed city system is changing more slowly than the ecological and social ones. This is evidenced by the appearance of many cities of the world at the end of the 20th century, namely busy city streets, large air pollution due to the over-use of cars, high levels of traffic noise, usurpation of the open parking spaces, etc. Initiated transformation of this negative picture is considered a complex and long-lasting process as well as the integral segment of sustainable urban development. Track 2 welcomes contributions that identify concrete challenges and present corresponding solutions regarding:
- Urban policy for mobility infrastructure (re)development;
- Sustainable mobility solutions for dense urban areas;
- (Re)design of the urban space along transport corridors;
- Spatial, social and ecological interrelations between pedestrian, singular and group (public) mobility corridors in urban environment;
- Car-free cities;
- Alternative mobility viewed from the perspective of social and health sciences;
- Design of slow-mobility streets;
- Open urban spaces as sustainable mobility nodes;
- Integration of sustainable mobility schemes into new urban development projects.
Keywords: Sustainable mobility, Urban morphology, Urban planning and design, Multidisciplinary approach
T3: Mitigating Traffic Congestion with Urban Development
Track Chair: Dr. Ilka Čerpes, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture, Slovenia
The fact that the sustainable mobility policy is the right way to reduce the harmful effects of motorized traffic on the environment has become a widely accepted fact. Less explored and considered are more detailed meaningful measures to achieve the goals and the consequences of their implementation for the development of urban environments. In the light of the experience of many European cities, the well-known measures for implementing a sustainable mobility policy are measures to reduce daily migration to urban centers and measures to introduce economically efficient public transport in the areas of highly dispersed settlements, which stay rather vague. The creative contributions on this topic with an emphasized interdisciplinary approach are welcomed within track 3. At the level of discussion on the consequences of sustainable mobility policies for the development of urban forms, we foresee the contributions that open up new issues and examples of innovative solutions in both urban centers and the wider space. We are particularly interested in considerations on: the effects of digitization on planning and design of transport infrastructure (How will it be re-formed in the new circumstances?); the impact of the deployment of built structures along transport corridors to reduce the differences between urban and rural living environments (How and where to create new centralities? Where and what is the limit of the urban centers?); the impact of densification of built structures on the quality of life (What are the characteristics of the compact city? How dense is too dense? Are the new typologies of dwellings being developed and what are they?). Contributions can be theoretical considerations, examples of management practices, case studies, demonstrations of implemented projects and alike.
: Mobility & Urbanization Policies, Urban patterns, Mobility modes, Centrality, Densities
T4: Travel time and Efficiency of Transport Systems
Track Chair: Mr. Manfred Wacker, University of Stuttgart, Institute for Road and Transport Science, Germany
This track focuses on one of the main functions of roads - to provide transport. To ensure transport while disturbing adjacent land uses not more than really necessary is one of the most fostering tasks in urban road planning and design. Not only motorized vehicles in private transport, public transport, bicycles and pedestrians compete for the given road space, but also adjacent land uses ask for public space along the roads. Nowadays even new means of transport like e-scooters or mono wheels show up. The track highlights the quality of the physical throughput of a road by the perspective of the traveler (travel time) and the planning authority (efficiency of transport), finally leading to the question which capacity a road offers for the different means of transport. These items reflect the connection and feeder function of a road and are very often in conflict with the habitation function. Having this in mind the track addresses also the question of both urban network hierarchies as well as urban road classifications.
: Travel time, Efficiency, Capacity, Urban Network Hierarchy, Urban Road Classification
T5: Public-Transport-oriented Cities for All
Track Chair: Dr. Luka Mladenovič, Urban Planning Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, Slovenia
Public transport is the cornerstone of mobility of a sustainable city. The contemporary public transport in cities goes beyond traditional forms such as train or bus. It involves ride sharing, car sharing, bike and scooter sharing etc. Applications help us plan the routes in real time. Some cities are also merging all public transport services in user packages within the MAAS services.
How will the extended understanding of public transport affect the built environment and the development of cities. How do cities adapt to these services? Are new typologies of public space needed to host the exchange between different transport modes? What elements of public transport should city administration add to planning? Are concepts like TOD a thing of a past or just gaining their real momentum? Are the new services accessible to everyone or exclusive to individual age or economic groups?
The approaches and experiences in this field vary among cities. Some cities have a clear vision of their future development and manage their mobility systems very strictly. Other ceased to plan and manage this area and leave the offer to the laws of the market. Within this track, we want to confront different approaches, experiences and considerations on how to plan cities in future so that they work more efficiently with the support of public transport.
: Public Transport, Sharing Practices, Supportive E-applications, Comprehensive Planning, New Planning Categories
T6: Borders in Street Life: Dividing or Protecting?
Track Chair: Dr. Domen Kušar, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture, Slovenia
As Jane Jacobs preached, large-scale highways, parks, and big buildings can all divide communities, discouraging street life and sucking the life out of cities. Can street life connect people when trying to follow protecting regulations and rules, and ensuring safety in the living environment? Security is among the most valued values of modern man. Measures, in particular the construction of walls and fences, are accompanied by a man since the ancient times. Nowadays the walls are being erected all over the world to satisfy partial economic interests, prevent migration flows, and maintain religious, social and ethnic dominance in individual societies. The questions are arising on a balance between safety, symbolism, semiotics and creation of borders with the urban furniture on one hand and the open urban public spaces as places of socio-economic interactions in the widest sense. In the conditions where due to the safety & security regulations the urban communities are losing the public space for the meaningful social contacts, human interactions, exchanges and free mobility, this track welcomes the contributions addressing the issue of borders in open public space in theoretical and practical terms.
: Dividing communities, Security, Walls and Fences, Connecting, Public space
T7: Green Mobility on a Way to Climate Resilient Streets
Track Chair: Dr. Saja Kosanović, University of Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia
Track 7 will encompass papers, presentations and discussions addressing green mobility on a way to climate resilient streets. Namely, climate change has become a relevant topic within various disciplines over the last decade. The manifestations of climate change are identified as a realistic threat to sustainable development in the built environment. In the context of climate resilience, common spaces in the built environment, including the streets, are gaining a new role and significance that need to be explored. Some of the main research issues to be addressed within the Track 7 are:
- Climate-resilient streets, strategies and policies;
- Climate-resilient streets and urban sustainability;
- Structure, metabolism and functionality of climate-resilient streets;
- Addressing climate change-related risks in street (re)design;
- Streets and extreme weather events;
- Design and materialization of climate-resilient and sustainable streets.
Keywords: Streets, Climate-change related risks, Uncertainty and Variability, Robustness, Adaptation, Sustainability-resilience nexus
T8: Safety and Mobility in Local Communities
Track Chair: Dr. Luca Staricco, Politechnico di Torino, Interuniversity Department
of Regional and Urban Studies and Planning, Italy
The friction between driveability and livability of neighborhoods has been widely acknowledged. Impacts of car traffic on the living quality of urban neighborhoods concern safety, air pollution, noise, streetscape, waste of space, etc. In particular, safety risks due to the dominant presence of the car in the local streets can discourage on the one hand alternative forms of mobility, such as walking and cycling; on the other hand, it is to the detriment of the social dimension of streets. At the same time, safety risks are often addressed through an engineering approach, which devotes little attention to improving the multi-functionality of the street.
Track 8 proposes a discussion about possible solutions to safety problems that are able at the same time to improve spaces for active mobility, increase the aesthetic quality of the streetscape and enhance opportunities for social interactions of the local community. All disciplinary approaches are welcome to the track, provided they highlight the potential synergies between safety, sustainable mobility and livability of the streets.
: Safety, Active mobility, Livability, Multi-functionality
T9: Indicators and Data for Local Progress in Sustainable Mobility
Track Chair: Dr. Peter Lipar, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Slovenia
Sustainability balances economic, social and environmental goals and objectives. Sustainable mobility is an important aspect of sustainable development that directly relates and shall integrate all free goals. However the indicators and data to monitor the efficiency and progress at the local level have been vaguely integrated so far.
Economic performance indicators contain for example transport system efficiency, transport system integration, efficient pricing and incentives, economic and business development and efficient transport operations. Therefore, the following information is relevant: GDP, per capita congestion delay, per capita transport energy consumption, service quality etc. Social performance indicators are mostly dedicated to fair transport system diversity, to minimizing risk of crashes, respecting and protecting cultural heritage and alike. Important indicators are: per capita traffic casualty, portion of travel by walking and cycling (modal split), land use, walkability and bike ability.
Environmental performance indicators represent climate stability, air pollution, noise pollution, water quality and biodiversity. Important pointers are: per capita emissions, traffic noise levels, fuel consumption, per capita land devoted to transport facilities, policies for high value of habitat and so on.
Any good governance and planning require well linked as well as joint indicators. In order to achieve this the goals and objectives need to be defined clearly. Track 9 welcomes the contributions adding to the discussion of establishment of the meaningful joint indicators to be used in comprehensive traffic and urban planning and design.
: Economic performance indicators, Social performance indicators, Environmental performance indicators, Joint indicators, Good governance and planning
T10: Pedestrian Friendly Cities to Support Climate Change
Track Chair: Matevž Juvančič, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture, Slovenia
Walkability and pedestrianization have come to dominate our visions of ideal cities. We can agree on the main benefits of pedestrian friendly urban environments: lively streets, safe and less stressful places, exercise without exercising, providing livelihood for dense and mixed-use programme at eye level, vicinity of functions, more opportunities for social interactions, etc. These create the cities in which we would all like to live in. With all of them practical and based on predominantly individual perception, we sometimes forget the larger benefits and influences on sustainable way of life. Does being able to walk really reduce the need to use the car and commute? Every last inch of the city cannot be a pedestrian zone: what ‘pedestrian friendly’ really means and what appropriate levels do we envision? Is it about the access, enjoying walking or cycling, preferring the ‘on foot’ mode over the others or excluding the others? Does pedestrian friendly also mean carless society and car free streets? To which of the main pillars of sustainability do pedestrian friendly cities bring the most and which ones get usually overlooked.
: Walkability and Pedestrianization, Sustainable Way of Life, Meaning of ‘Pedestrian Friendly’, Encouraging Active Lifestyles by Urban Design
T11: Mobility Narratives and Shifting Identities
Track Chair: Dr. Ognen Marina, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Faculty of Architecture, Republic of North Macedonia
Mobility has become the staple activity of contemporary society. The progress of society is measured not just by the level of economic and social development but also by the pace of transport, the frequency and quality of travel and accessibility of places. Movement of people and goods creates numerous encounters between people and places expanding its social, cultural and political significance. Mobility has become a fundamental social experience with multiple consequences. From commuters to intercontinental flights, from tourists to migrants, urban to suburban and beyond, sites and means of mobility have become the places of social interaction and places where new identities are created on daily bases. This conference track addresses the impact of mobility on creation and reshaping of versatile identities.
We are interested in research that provides a comprehensive and yet detailed insight into processes that enable creation of narrative to interpret and re-construct the spatial, social and cultural experiences while confronted with their newly established identities. This track will examine how people create, through their personal and collective narratives, their multiple identities and social status. We are interested in research and papers that describe a shift from place-based and prescribed identities to mobile and newly acquired identities, research that see identity as mobile, dynamic, hybrid, and relational, and insight in architecture, urban planning, geography, arts and other disciplines that consider the relationship between mobility, place and identity.
: Mobility, Movement of people, Creation and Reshaping of Versatile Identities, Personal and Collective Narratives
T12: Street Lighting – Supporting Sustainable Urban Development
Track chair: assist. prof. DR. TOMAŽ NOVLJAN, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture, Slovenia
Exterior lighting has always been an essential element of nocturnal cityscapes; initially it was primarily based in function, providing night-time security and orientation within the built environment. These functional needs were in turn augmented by advertising and outdoor living ambiances that established multi-scaled spatial hierarchies as well as creating multifarious views of the city during the darkness of night. Nocturnal lighting within the urban landscape is one of the many challenges that any contemporary city faces.
Track 12 welcomes the contributions on the proposed topics:
- Establishing orientation and hierarchy in cityscapes;
- Creating “another face” of the city;
- Nocturnal public spaces;
- Lighting art and advertising;
- Obtrusive light and light pollution.
Keywords: Exterior Lighting, Nocturnal Cityscapes, Urban Landscape
T13: Sustainable Tourist Mobility: New Implications for Non-Motorized Trips
Track Chair: Dr. Jean-Pierre El Asmar, Notre Dame University-Louaize, Ramez G. Chagoury Faculty of Architecture, Arts and Design, Lebanon
Tourist mobility that is based on the principles of sustainable development underpinned by the three main pillars of sustainable development - the social, economic and environmental, is widely advocated to drastically curtail the ecological footprints tourism. Two main research directions around tourist mobility and sustainable development can be identified: research exploring the technological and organizational characteristics of the transportation modes; and research focusing on the attitude and travelling behavior of tourists, particularly how this relates to the local environment and its population. The literature on transport and travel directs attention on environmental implications of the modes of tourists travels to tourist destinations such as air and sea mobility. These modes of travel are known to have major environmental impacts relating to carbon emissions and discharge of effluents on the oceans. However, the total volumes of travels by road, using trains, buses, and private motor cars also invite huge carbon emissions. These in addition to noise pollution and indiscriminate disposal of solid wastes, particularly plastics, have led to calls for sustainable tourism which emphasizes tourism in line with the regenerative capacity of the global natural environment as well as respects and regards for local cultures and values. In view of the slow technological progress and structural innovations, and the growing traffic volumes, how would a change in behavior shift the trends towards a more sustainable mobility? Non-motorized transport is gaining attention as a sustainable alternative to the use of cars. How would the supply of a network of facilities and services, enhance non-motorized tourism? How do we ensure that the transaction costs of such shifts do not make tourism the preclude of the rich, thereby widening the inequality of access and outcome of sustainable tourism? In particular, what policy mix between command and controls versus economic incentives would be necessary to increase non-motorized mobility in destination areas? How do we ensure adequate capacity across tourism destinations to avoid creating two worlds of tourism experience?
: Sustainable Mobility; Sustainable Tourism; Social Responsibility; Tourist Behavior; Greenhouse Gas Emission; Climate Change; Energy Efficiency; Innovative Technologies
T14: Perspectives on Sustainable Mobility: Culture of Everyday Activism
Track Chair: Dr. Christine Mady, Notre Dame University-Louaize, Ramez G. Chagoury, Faculty of Architecture, Arts and Design, Department of Architecture, Lebanon
Mobility in this track is investigated through a relational perspective, considering the historical, social, economic, political and environmental characteristics of the context, and how they shape and are shaped by social practices. In particular, the role of mobility in contexts of instability is central in either mitigating or increasing discrepancies among the population. Also, social practices including everyday activism could contribute towards facilitating the mobility of various groups such as the disadvantaged, the impaired, the very young or the aging. Activists are essential in promoting different modes, specifically the non-motorized. This track invites contributions from various disciplines that engage with one of the following questions: how is mobility justice sustained in the absence of public investment? How can activists guide investors in transportation away from the modification of basic mobility and towards a sustainable approach? What happens to everyday mobility in contexts of instability such as sudden population changes, natural or man-made disasters? How can actors engage in increasing accessibility and everyday mobility for different user groups? How can activists inform urban planners and policymakers in decisions related to mobility to and within urban contexts? What modalities by mobility activists contribute to sustaining spontaneous encounters and social interaction through mobility, enhancing the urban experience?
: Everyday Activism, Mobility, Mobility Studies, Relational Perspective